1. Unlike the dementias, schizophrenia has no classic histopathologic features readily identifiable with standard light microscopic assessments. BMC Health Services ... Keith Fear, Chris Hynes, Joanne Sullivan, Gary Moore, Bruce and Burns, Tom 2010. The goal of the present study was to build on this by exploring content validity from the perspective of psychologists, another group of health professionals closely involved in the care of individuals with schizophrenia. Dangerousness, unpredictability and the fear of people with schizophrenia. Data were collected between March and June 2017, with participants being allowed two weeks to respond in each round. Schizophrenia is a mental health condition that usually appears in late adolescence or early adulthood. References. As many of the categories listed in that Core Set were considered important by more than half the experts but did not reach the threshold for consensus (75% agreement), the results are discussed by considering categories that were clearly excluded (50% or less of agreement), those whose relevance appears to be ambiguous (between 50% and 75% of agreement), and those for which there was consensus (75% or more agreement). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.g002. The illness affects all aspects of cognition, emotion, perception, and behavior in ways that impact the individual with the illness, his or her family, and society. (2018) [14]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.t001. Two health professionals with experience of treating persons with schizophrenia and trained in the use of the ICF independently linked all responses from the first Delphi round to the corresponding ICF categories. For instance, if the reported problem was ‘executive dysfunction’, the concept ‘executive function’ was extracted and assigned to the ICF category b164 Higher-level cognitive functions. Further information about the experts who formed part of this study is available as supplementary data (S2 Text). The study procedure was the same as that used in the validation study of the ICF-CS for schizophrenia from the perspective of psychiatrists, and hence further details can be consulted in Nuño et al. Funding: This work was supported by Spain’s Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness [grant PSI2015–67984-R], and by the Agency for the Management of University and Research Grants of the Government of Catalonia [grant 2017SGR1681]. The content validity of the ICF-CSs for schizophrenia has already been examined and supported from the perspective of psychiatrists [14]. Investigation, Yes The specific symptoms that have been felt to characterize schizophrenia have varied widely over time and across cultures, as has the diagnostic and prognostic importance placed on these symptoms. 6.484. Unlike the dementias, schizophrenia … Sixteen categories from this component that are included in the ICF-CS for schizophrenia did not yield consensus (see S3 Table for more information). Other main objectives include training in social skills and problem solving, reducing positive and negative symptoms, and modifying contextual factors to facilitate recovery [9]. Schizophrenia High Impact List of Articles PPts Journals 1154. This reflects the fact that schizophrenia has a major impact on everyday functioning in all these areas, and illustrates why the main long-term therapeutic goals in the psychological treatment of these individuals are not limited to specific symptoms, but rather focus on improving patients’ psychosocial functioning [32,33]. Importantly, improvement and decline in aspects of functioning can be displayed in a functioning profile over the course of treatment or over the life span. Increased repulsion of working memory representations in schizophrenia. Resources, Change style powered by CSL. Schizophrenia has a lifetime prevalence of about 1% 4 and accounts for a huge health care burden, with annual associated costs in the United States estimated to be more than $150 billion. With respect to the Body functions component, an agreement of 75% or higher was achieved for 14 categories. The purpose is to achieve consensus from a panel of individuals with knowledge of the topic of interest (hereinafter, experts). Third- and fourth-level categories are more specific than second-level categories, and they share the attributes of the second-level category with which they are associated. Department of Social Psychology and Quantitative Psychology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, Roles From the experts’ answers in round one, a total of 7,526 concepts were extracted and linked to 412 ICF categories (219 second-level, 189 third-level, and 4 fourth-level). Data curation, Schizophrenia is a devastating illness with an early adulthood onset and persistent course. Schizophrenia - Psychology bibliographies - in Harvard style . Introduction. Four of the 17 categories that are included in the ICF-CS for schizophrenia (b330 Fluency and rhythm of speech functions, b530 Weight maintenance functions, b640 Sexual functions, and b765 Involuntary movement functions) did not achieve consensus in the Delphi study (see S1 Table for more details). Each ICF-CS comprises a selection of ICF categories that are considered essential for describing the functioning of a person living with the corresponding health condition. Angus MacDonald, III, PhD. Abstract. In this report, the historical concepts of what constitutes the “characteristic symptoms” of schizophrenia are reviewed in the context of the development of DSM-IV . These results are in line with those obtained in the validation study from the perspective of psychiatrists, where all the categories of the Brief ICF-CS and 90% of those in the Comprehensive version yielded consensus. Four categories from the Environmental factors component of the ICF-CS for schizophrenia did not achieve consensus but were selected by more than 50% of the experts surveyed. Its worldwide acceptance and applicability to all health conditions is one of its main contributions in comparison with other evaluation systems. 1, pp. based on previously proposed categorizations of personal factors [14,18,19] and on the experts’ responses to the question about personal factors. A multidisciplinary approach is essential to help individuals with this health condition, and psychological interventions are considered a priority. However, a useful functional psychology of schizophrenia (in distinction to a psychological approach to symptoms) remains clinically important for several reasons: it is a core part of the bio- psycho -social formulation; it helps us understand and connect with persons with schizophrenia; … Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that afflicts more than 21 million people worldwide [1]. However, one of its categories (s110 Structure of brain) reached an agreement of 90% in the Delphi study (for more details, see S2 Table). More detail regarding the categories listed by the experts and the corresponding percentage analyses is provided in S1–S5 Tables. With the aim of avoiding language barriers and encouraging participation by experts from different world regions, the study was conducted in five languages (Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish). here. As this category also reached consensus in the validation study from the perspective of psychiatrists it clearly reflects a problem area for these patients [28,29], and therefore its exclusion from the ICF-CS for schizophrenia should be reconsidered. here. Formal analysis, This meant that in round two, the panel had to consider a list of 114 second-level ICF categories and 33 Personal factors. This suggests that these categories (e.g., e555 Associations and organizational services, systems, and policies) may be relevant to the assessment and treatment of individuals with schizophrenia, but that they are not primary targets of psychological intervention. Let’s look at some common misconceptions. Volume 77, Issue 1. These results suggest that psychologists ascribe considerable importance to the impact of environmental factors on the functioning of a person with schizophrenia, a point already made by other authors [34,35]. Along with medication, psychotherapy and support can help them regain their lives. Responses in the first Delphi round were logged using an online survey system (www.qualtrics.com). In summary, only three of the 76 categories that yielded an agreement of at least 75% do not feature in the Comprehensive ICF-CS for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder associated with impairment in functioning. The Comprehensive ICF-CS categories that were selected by fewer than 50% of psychologists mainly referred to simple activities such as d210 Undertaking a single task and d330 Speaking, whereas consensus was achieved for the equivalent more complex categories (e.g., d220 Undertaking multiple tasks). Section 1: Diagnosis and Classification of Schizophrenia . 313 Early Neurocognitive Markers of Developmental Psychopathology Keep on Citing! 19-39. PLoS ONE 14(6): Online First Articles. The primary limitation of the study concerns the representativeness of the panel of experts. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. J. Gómez-Benito was the author who received the funding. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry: Vol. The proposed categorization of Personal factors was developed by consensus among three psychologists (L.N., M.B., G.G.) 6, No. Validation, In P. B. Bradley & S. R. Hirsch (Eds), The Psychopharmacology and … Next. Concerning the Body functions component, all the categories that yielded consensus belong to chapter b1 Mental functions. | the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section B, Vol kappa coefficient for the present Delphi study by of... 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